Monday, November 30, 2020

How Much Ammunition is Produced for the United States Market?

 Image courtesy Dean Weingarten

For the second time in a decade, demand for ammunition has outstripped supply in the United States. The first ammunition bubble was from 2012 to 2017. The next started in 2020. 

Ammunition manufacturers have increased their capacity. In the face of increased demand, it has not been enough. Ammunition plants are running 24/7 to make profits while demand is high.  Shortages still exist in the United States. Common calibers have disappeared from store shelves. Prices have risen. Panic buying and purchasing for private stockpiles has increased. 

Those who purchased a stockpile in the interval between ammunition bubbles from 2017 to 2020, are considered wise and foresighted. At one point in October of 2018, .22 rimfire ammunition was available at 2.5 cents per round.

How much ammunition is being produced and purchased in the United States market? 

During the .22 rimfire bubble, the productive capacity was increased from about 4 billion rimfire rounds to 5 billion rimfire rounds per year. 

The National Shooting Sports Foundation has estimated total ammunition produced for the United States market in 2017 at 8.1 billion rounds. 

In 2018, the total ammunition production for the United States was estimated at 8.7 billion rounds. 

The numbers for 2019 should be published in December of 2020. 

A reasonable extrapolation puts the amount of ammunition produced for the United States market at somewhat over 9 billion rounds, of which 5 billion are rimfire and 4 billion are centerfire rifle, pistol and shotgun rounds in 2020. 

To put those numbers in perspective, the capacity of the U.S. military to produce small arms ammunition is 1.6 billion rounds per year. 99% of small arms ammunition for the military is produced at the Lake City ammunition plant in independence, Missouri. From

Over 99 percent of all small-arms bullets (5.56-millimeter [mm], 7.62-mm and .50-caliber) consumed by the Army under its Title 10 responsibility to supply and equip its forces are manufactured at the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant.

Lake City is the last of the World War II ammunition plants still in operation. All the rest have been shut down and decommissioned. In World War II, the U.S. produced 21.6 billion rounds of small arms ammunition per year. Most of the ammunition plants were shut down immediately after the war. During the Korean war, 4 plants were brought back into service. Now only the Lake City plant is operational. From

After VJ day, all small caliber production plants except Lake City and Twin Cities were closed.Years later, the Korean Conflict would only require operation of six small caliber ammunition plants to meet wartime requirements. Five plants were utilized in the Vietnam War and amazingly today‟s production is able to meet requirements of 1.5 billion rounds per year by operating one facility, Lake City with Alliant Tech systems (ATK) as the current operating contractor. Modernization of production lines and new technologies has provided the abilities to meet this mission with a reduced infrastructure. Additional rounds are procured from General Dynamics and provided by NATO forces to meet total requirements. 48

Ammunition manufacturing capacity, for the United States market, is about 9 billion rounds per year. About 5 billion are rimfire, about 4 billion are centerfire. 

Small arms ammunition capacity for the U.S. military is about 1.6 billion rounds per year. It is all centerfire ammunition. 

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch

AL: Disarm, Home Invaders Disarm Juvenile, Leave with Handgun

About 7 p.m. Thursday, the Morgan County Sheriff’s Office said two masked and armed people forced their way into a home in the 3000 block of Rescue Road in the Union Hill Community.

The sheriff’s office said “a juvenile in the home bravely, but unsuccessfully, attempted to protect the grandmother and home by grabbing a handgun and confronting the assailants.”

The two went through the home and took the gun from the juvenile. A driver was waiting outside for them, and all three took off.


More Here

Sunday, November 29, 2020

Kyle Rittenhouse out on 2 Million Dollar Bail in Kenosha

Image of flying kick attack at Rittenhouse from the, cropped, scaled and text added by Dean Weingarten.

Kyle Rittenhouse, the young defender of lives and property during the Kenosha riots, who shot three mob members who unprovokedly attacked him as he ran from them, was released on bail from Kenosha County Jail, on Friday, 20 November, 2020. 

The Kenosha County Court Commissioner, Loren Keating, set bail at $2 million, after Rittenhouse's attorney, Mark Richards, asked for bail to be set at $750,000. 

In Wisconsin, no bail bond system is allowed. Therefore the entire $2 million bail was raised through donations to the #Fightback site. Kyle attempted to turn himself in shortly after the shootings, but was told by police to "go home" in the chaos of the riot. From  

Rittenhouse appeared in court by video conference for his initial appearance Monday. He was extradited to Wisconsin last week after being held for weeks at a juvenile detention center in Lake County, Illinois.

The 17-year-old turned himself in to police in Antioch, Illinois, one day after the shooting. Records show he tired to surrender to a Kenosha police officer earlier, hours after the shooting, however, he was told to go home.

Kyle Supporters across the country have been outraged by what is considered a political prosecution, in spite of ample video evidence of self defense. Included is a charge of "Possession of a Dangerous Weapon by a Person Under 18". The charge does not even apply to Kyle, because it does not apply to people over 16, except in special circumstances, which were not germane to Kyle.

The persecution of Rittenhouse has become a popular cause on the Left, with unfounded charges of "White Supremacy".  They claim Kyle provoked the attack by being armed. An example of the irrational argument comes  from

The trouble begins when you start applying the legal rules to someone in Rittenhouse’s situation, namely, someone who has carried an AR-15-style weapon to what is intended to be a peaceful protest. In a commonsense universe, this act itself would appear to be a provocation.

Yet under Wisconsin law, adults are entitled to carry around their licensed firearms in public places. An open-carry law means that prosecutors would have a tough time convincing a jury that simply carrying an assault rifle counts as a provocation.

People on the Left claim a black person who did the same as Kyle would not be alive, or would not be give nbail. But the facts show otherwise. Kyle's attackers have not been charged. The one clear attacker who seems to have escaped unharmed, is black, and has not been identified, although there is enormous video evidence with clues which could be used to identify him.

Breonna Taylor's boyfriend, Kenneth Walker, was quickly freed and the charges against him dropped. Kenneth Walker is black. 

Justice should be blind, not based on skin color. None of the people Kyle shot were black.

If someone chases a person and tries to violently take their rifle, the rifle carrier is not obligated to wrestle for the firearm.  The rifle possessor can shoot the attacker to prevent them from taking the rifle and using it against them. From

Firearms and Unarmed Aggressors

As noted above, if the client used a deadly weapon, especially a firearm, to defend himself against an unarmed attack, the attorney will have a difficult time convincing the jury that the client acted in self-defense.

If the client is armed with a firearm, and the aggressor is aware of the firearm and tries to close in on the client, the client is justified in firing before the parties begin wrestling over the firearm. Many police officers are killed with their own firearms.27 Officers are trained in specific retention techniques to avoid having their service firearms taken away and used against them; a client will rarely have the benefit of this training. Police react to an effort to grab an officer’s handgun as an attempt to kill the officer with that handgun; the client should be able to do so too.

Police use-of-force doctrine also allows officers to shoot unarmed aggressors running towards them. As the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit noted: “A reasonable officer would not be expected to take the risk of being assaulted by a fleeing man who was so close that he could grapple with him and seize the gun. Our recitation of these events is a discussion in slow motion of an incident that took place in a matter of seconds.[The officer] had no time for the calm, thoughtful deliberation typical of an academic setting.”28 Similar logic should apply to citizens as well.

There are many examples in the law. Someone who violently tries to illegally disarm you is considered a deadly threat by the justice system.

Those who have rallied to Kyle's defense believe they are working against a corrupted political system. 

Can anyone reasonably believe if Kyle were black, any charges would be brought against him? 

Yes.  Charges would be brought. It is not Kyle's skin color which is deemed most important. Rather, he dared to assert his rights to be armed and to defend self and property against a Leftist mob.  Justice Clarence Thomas is not considered to be "authentically black" by the Left.

Those who stand for Kyle and the rule of law have been vilified by the left.  Actor Ricky Schroder has already been threatened. 

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch



Fl: Domestic Defense? Florida Man Shoots, Kills Adult Male Relative

It happened just before 7 p.m. Tuesday in the area of Starling Water Drive and Starling Dale Lane, according to the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office.

Deputies say a man in his 20s called 911 and said an adult, male relative threatened him with a gun. The caller reportedly claimed to fear for his life and grabbed his own weapon.

He shot the relative several times, the sheriff's office says, adding the man was dead when deputies arrived. It's believed there is no threat to the public.

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WA: Armed Samaritan Shoots Suspect who Came at Him with Ax Handle

The driver got out of his vehicle as the man with the ax handle moved toward him, according to police. Investigators said the witness pulled out a gun and shot the man with the ax handle.

The shooter then called 911 and provided aid to the other man until emergency crews arrived at the scene.

The man who was shot was taken to the hospital for treatment and remained in the hospital Monday, according to the Vancouver Police Department.

More Here

Fl: Armed Victim Shoots, Kills Armed Robbery Suspect

LAUDERDALE LAKES, Fla. – A man was fatally shot by the victim he was trying to rob last week in Lauderdale Lakes, authorities said.

According to Broward Sheriff’s Office spokeswoman Carey Codd, the unidentified man and another suspect, identified as Litanis Alcira, 41, of Margate, committed an armed robbery around 10:30 p.m. last Friday in the 3900 block of Northwest 34th Way.

More Here

Review: illegal 3D Printed Guns in Europe by Popular Front (video)


Screenshot from youtube video cropped and scaled by Dean Weingarten


The 26 minute video is an interview by Jake Hanrahan of the Popular Front, and a demonstration of the FGC-9. The video is on the way to becoming one of his more popular productions. As of November 23, 2020, it had  over 70,000 views, basically in the first day.

The video starts with commentators obsessing over "ghost guns" in the United States. This may be clever editing to keep Youtube censors off the track.  The concern over untraceable guns in the United States is ludicrous. There are hundreds of millions of untraceable guns in the United States already.

 Link to video on youtube

The premise of the video is an interview with JStark1809, the primary designer of the 3D printed FGC-9 semi-automatic 9mm pistol/carbine.

The interview was conducted at some point in Europe: JStark1809 agreed to an interview with Jake Hanrana of Popular Front.  From Popular Front:

Popular Front is conflict journalism done differently. We report on the parts of war big media rarely acknowledges, and talk to people they'll never find. We don't have corporate bugmen trying to dictate what we do either. This is all independent, funded by members through subscriptions and sponsorship. 

Popular Front is detailed, niche, and for everyone. You don't need a PhD or an invite to a journo dinner party to be in on this. We do serious work, but we don't take ourselves too seriously. We want no frills, and no elitism.

The video shows a workshop which may be in an apartment, but could be in nearly any occupied space.  Reloading equipment is shown set up on a work table. Perhaps it was set ups specifically for the interview. For security purposes, that would be prudent.

Much of the interview is explaining how JStark1809 worked to create a self sustaining, distributed network to create and distribute information on how to print and assemble practical, self made firearms. The Internet was the primary means to gather and use the  information. 

Some time is spent on how difficult it would be to stop this distributed, anonymous information sharing network.

The central point is anyone with a few hundred dollars, starting with very little skill and one and a half to two weeks of work, can make the FGC-9 in a bedroom.

Hanrahan  says the technology is incredibly dangerous.  The United States stands as a counter-example.

JStark1809 says he is willing to give up a little security for a lot more freedom. 

JStark1809 says he stands for Freedom of Speech and the right to keep and bear arms.

The scene then moves to a place deep in a forest. A suppressed FGC-9 is fired repeatedly to show the effectiveness of the semi-auto design.

Hanrahan tries to make the point that power should not be had by the wrong people. Who decides who the wrong people are? Keeping guns away from most people, to attempt to keep them from some, has not worked. 

Access to guns has not increased crime in the United States, or in Switzerland. Removing easy access to guns has not reduced murder rates in Europe, India, Brazil, or elsewhere. One of the commenters at the site states the argument succinctly. From the comments: 

The argument isn't, and has never been, about whether people should have guns or not, that pandora's box was opened long ago. It's about WHICH people should have guns and in that case, the only just answer is everyone.

In the United States, suppressors are tightly controlled. In much of the rest of the world, they are not. A suppressor is shown and used on the FGC-9.

Some comments about the suppressor on the FGC-9:

Asking where he got the suppressor but not where he got the gun components? Just follow the thought process to its logical conclusion.
Most suppressors are perfectly legal in Europe. You can buy them with no paperwork even in the police state called the UK.
same here in NZ, even after the new asinine gun laws. The assumption is that you already legally own the gun you’re attaching it to, so there’s no reason to restrict them.

Suppressors can be made on 3D printers. Most of the ones I have seen have been for .22 rimfire. 9mm suppressors could be 3D printed, but might require a hybrid technology similar to the FGC-9 design to last for very long. 

Firearms are 500 year old technology. People have been making their own as long as firearms have existed. 

The FGC-9 is an example of the futility of attempting to keep firearms away from someone who is determined to have them. 

The video is worth watching to see the FGC-9 in action, and to see a European's distrust of ordinary people having access to common firearms. 

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch




Saturday, November 28, 2020

MN: Woman with Carry Permit Shot and Killed in St. Paul

Antoine Lorenzo Powell, 34, was charged via warrant with one count of second-degree murder, according to a criminal complaint filed Tuesday in Ramsey County District Court. No motive for the slaying was spelled out, however.

Just after 3:30 a.m. on Sept 3, officers responded to the area of Arcade Street and Cook Avenue in St. Paul, where they found Annamarie Wagener, of St. Paul, with gunshot wounds to her leg and chest.


Witnesses reported hearing a gunshot, a pause and then a burst of more gunshots.

Officers located six spent shell casings near where Wagener was found, and discovered that Wagener’s cellphone and handgun were missing. According to the complaint, Wagener had recently gotten a permit to carry a firearm and the gun because she didn’t feel safe in the area where she lived.

More Here

Friday, November 27, 2020

VA: Armed Resident Shoots, Wounds 2 Home Invasion Suspects

The Lynchburg Police Department is investigating a home invasion that occurred on Wooldridge Circle early Wednesday morning, Nov. 25.

According to police, at 1:40 a.m., officers responded to the 100-block of Wooldridge Circle for a report of a burglary in progress.

They say two men knocked on a residence and assaulted the resident before trying to enter the home. The resident shot both suspects who suffered non-life-threatening injuries.

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AL: Miranda Mullins Shoots, Wounds Fuel City Robbery Suspect, the Finishes Shift

TUSCUMBIA, Ala. — A robbery suspect was airlifted to Huntsville Hospital Monday after being shot at a Tuscumbia gas station, police said.

Tuscumbia Police Chief Tony Logan said the robbery happened at the Fuel City on Highway 72 around 11 a.m. A clerk shot the suspect as he was trying to get away, Logan said.

The clerk, Miranda Mullins, told News 19 she was suspicious of the man when he came into the store because he had his hood up and was wearing sunglasses.

More Here

Thursday, November 26, 2020

Men Make Video with Illegal Weapons, Ties to Extremist Web Site, Arrested on Weapons Charges

It is a bad idea to record illegal activity. It creates evidence of a crime.

According to court documents, Collins, Kryscuk, and Duncan conspired to manufacture, transport, and sell hard to obtain firearms and firearm parts in a manner that would hide these purchases from the federal government.  From May 2019 to the present, Collins made multiple money transfers through his personal account to Kryscuk to purchase firearms to include a 9mm pistol and suppressor and a short barrel rifle. In turn, Kryscuk purchased items from vendors to manufacture the firearms and suppressors.  In furtherance of the crime, Kryscuk, using an alias, mailed the manufactured weapons from Idaho to Jacksonville, North Carolina.  Kryscuk also shipped the short barrel rifle, not registered as required by the federal government, to Collins.  Duncan, a military contractor, and Hermanson, currently a U.S. Marine, were aware of and participated in the conspiracy.


From video footage recorded by the members during the training, Kryscuk, Duncan, and others produced a montage video of their training.  In the video, the participants are seen firing short barrel rifles and other assault-type rifles, and the end of the propaganda video shows the four participants outfitted in skull masks giving the “Heil Hitler” sign, beneath the image of a black sun, a Nazi symbol.


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FL: Off Duty Officer Responds to Son's Call, Shoots, Kills Suspect Attempting to Break In

According to police, a person attempted to break into the home while a 13-year-old boy was inside.

“The 13-year-old child located within the residence contacted his parents and stated that someone was trying to break in from the rear,” Miami-Dade Police detective Kristopher Welch said. “His father, a City of Miami Police officer, responded on scene, confronted the subject, shots were fired. He ultimately succumbed to his injuries.”

“That’s a natural response I would say,” said neighbor Orencio Castillo.

“That’s natural,” said another nearby resident.

More Here

Wednesday, November 25, 2020

OK: Disarm? Elk City Home Invader Suspects Shot, 1 Killed, 1 Wounded

The article mentions only one gun, brought in by the suspects.

ELK CITY, Okla. -

The Elk City Police Department is investigating a deadly home invasion. Police said the victim told investigators two men broke into his bedroom.

That's when investigators said the homeowner then opened fire on both, killing one of the would-be thieves.

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TX: Domestic Defense? Ex Boyfriend Shot, Killed in Woman's Apartment

HOUSTON (KABB) – Police in Houston say a man was shot and killed when he tried to break into his ex-girlfriend’s apartment.

Investigators said the woman was home when the man got inside using the sliding glass door. She picked up a gun and shot him. He died at the scene.

More Here

Tuesday, November 24, 2020

MI: Grand Rapids 2nd Gun Turn-in Upstaged by Private Buyers

Image from Grand Rapids Police Facebook, Cropped and Scaled by Dean Weingarten

The second phase of the great Grand Rapids Police gun turn-in of 2020 has come and gone. On 7 November, at 851 Leonard St. NW, police stopped the turn-in. The program was labled with the Orwellian term "buyback". A police department cannot "buyback" what it never owned. The vast majority of the over 450 million privately owned guns in the United States were never owned by any local, state, or national government entity. There were a few million guns sold surplus after the great wars; but those are about 1% of the total number. 

Most of the guns in the picture put on facebook by the Grand Rapids Police Department are older antiques and inexpensive models. In the center of the picture, with plastic simulated ivory grips, is an old acquaintance, the RG-14. It is an inexpensive revolver, but it generally works. I was able to shoot a 2 inch group with one at 50 feet, using a rest and a lot of concentration to overcome the horrible trigger. It might be worth $50. The program paid $100. 

As expected, the program ran out of gift cards early. Most of the cards were probably used on 24 October, when 107 firearms were turned in. It appear another 53 firearms were turned in on 7 November. Exactly when the program was shut down is uncertain. The time stamp on the announcement at the Grand Rapids Police Department Facebook page shows 9:09 a.m. The program was not scheduled to start until 10 a.m. From the facebook page:

This past Saturday, the Gun Buy Back was forced to end early, as all of the funds were spent. One hundred sixty firearms were turned in.
This program has been a great success. The City and the GRPD greatly appreciates the support, as we continue to work towards being the safest mid-sized city in the US.
Image from City of Grand Rapids, for the event, cropped and scaled by Dean Weingarten
From the comments on the facebook page, it is clear the program ended before 1 p.m.. One commenter, GT Comet, arrived at 1 p.m. and found the program shut down, with a parking lot of private buyers paying cash for guns brought in after the gift cards ran out. From the comments:
EPIC FAIL today by the Grand Rapids Police Department, they held a gun buy back at Genesis Non-Profit Housing Corporation located at 851 Leonard St. NW 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. When I got there at 1:00 the GRPD was gone and the parking lot was full of guys paying cash for guns.

The Grand Rapids Police Facebook page is the only coverage of the event on 7 November found in several searches of the Internet. This is not surprising, because the paucity of results, combined with the private buyers on the scene, contradict and destroy the propaganda value of the event. 

The academic community pretty much agrees the only value of such events is the propaganda value.  This report in the from January, 2020, does a decent job of showing this, in spite of the Orwellian terms used, such as "Gun Violence" and "buyback". From the report: 

“Given the empirical evidence, police agencies may use gun buyback programs not with the expectation of reducing violent crime, but to satisfy the public’s expectations,” the authors write. “When serious crime problems occur, mayors and police chiefs are under pressure from their constituents to ‘do something dramatic and effective’ about the violence.”

These gun "buyback" programs are part of the larger culture war. They are designed to send a message: Guns bad. Turn them in to the police. 

Private buyers at these events cancel the "guns bad" message. They send the message: Guns Good. I pay cash. 

The culture warriors who picked up some guns for a little money in Grand Rapids, Michigan, while placing guns which might end up on the street into responsible hands, were achieving the program's stated purpose, while canceling the unstated propaganda message. 


©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch


PA: Dog Attacks, Injuires Several Individuals until Armed Samaritan Pulls Gun, Shoots Dog

Several people are injured and a dog is dead in Delaware County after the pup is said to have attacked ‘numerous people’ before being shot and killed Saturday afternoon, Your Content has exclusively learned.

Law enforcement sources tell Your Content they responded to the 100 block of Saudi Avenue in Tinicum Township just before 1 p.m. Saturday.

More Here

LA: Homeowners Shoots, Wounds 1, Kills 1 of 2 Home Invasion Suspects

One suspect was fatally shot and another was wounded in a home invasion Friday night on Eleanor Street, Baton Rouge Police said. 

First responders received a call that several people had entered a home around 7 p.m. in the 3700 block of Eleanor Street armed with handguns, according to a news release. The homeowner fired at the invaders and struck two suspects.

More Here

Monday, November 23, 2020

Montana Elected a Republican Governor. Expect Constitutional Carry in 2021

Image from wikimedia, CC license 1.2, cropped and scaled by Dean Weingarten

Montana is on track to become the 17th state to restore Constitutional Carry. It will probably do so in 2021. Constitutional Carry means most people can carry, concealed or openly, most of the time in most public places, without any special governmental permission or permit. It was the state of affairs in the young United States when the Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791.

In 2020, Republican Greg Gianforte won the race for Governor in Montana. Greg is the first Montanan Republican governor since 2005. 

Greg won with 54.4% of the vote to his Democrat challenger's 41.6%. 

The former governor, Democrat Steve Bullock, was defeated in his attempt to win a Senate seat in Montana, with 53% to 47% of the vote. 

President Donald Trump received 56.9% of the vote to Candidate Biden's 40.6% of the vote.

Democrat governors in Montana have vetoed Constitutional Carry three times, after it passed the legislature with hefty margins. Montana has Constitutional Carry for 99% of the state, in areas outside of town and city limits. But towns and city limits are where many people spend most of their time.

In 2011, Democrat governor Brian Schweitzer vetoed Constitutional Carry bill HB 271. The legislature did not override the veto. 

In 2015, Democrat governor Steve Bullock vetoed Constitutional Carry bill HB 298. 

In 2017, Governor Bullock vetoed Constitutional Carry bill HB 262. Governor Bullock made a statement on Second Amendment rights. The statement was on the Governor's web site. That page no longer exists. Here is the statement:

 As a lifelong gun owner and as Montana’s former top cop, Steve Bullock is a staunch supporter of our Second Amendment rights and fights for the right of all law-abiding citizens to own and responsibly use guns.

No right to carry guns, or mention of the right to self defense was included. 

In 2017, there were 32 Republicans and 17 Democrats in the Senate. There were 59 Republicans and 41 Democrats in the House. The vote for Constitutional Carry was 31 in the Senate and 60 in the House. 

In 2021, there will be a Republican majority Senate and House. There will be 67 Republicans of 100 House members, and 31 Republicans of 50 Senate members. There was an incredible 80.91% turnout of registered voters.  From

According to uncertified vote counts from the Montana Secretary of State’s office, Republicans picked up nine legislative seats in the Montana House and one in the Montana Senate — enough to expand their majorities to 67 of 100 House seats and 31 of 50 Senate seats. Going into the 2021 session, the Republican majority in the House will be sufficient to override a governor’s veto or to pass measures that require a two-thirds majority without winning Democratic votes.

It is hard to see a reason for the Montana legislature to fail in a fourth attempt to pass Constitutional Carry, this time in 2021. 

I talked with Gary Marbut, the powerhouse in Montana on issues impacting the right to keep and bear arms. Gary has arguably been the most influential Montana citizen on these issues since 1987. He founded the Montana Shooting Sports Association. (MSSA) when the local NRA affliate seemed unwilling to make waves.

He and the MSSA has been responsible for the passage of  68 pro-gun and pro-hunting bills passed in Montana. 

The flagship bill Gary and the MSSA intends to introduce in 2021 will focus on eliminating gun free zones. It will also remove carry restrictions.

Gary prefers the term "permitless carry" to Constitutional Carry. Permitless carry will be part of the flagship bill.

 I asked Gary what the chances of passing the flagship bill with permitless carry. He said: 

"Excellent. We've gotten permitless carry through the legislature three times. We have a new governor who is a gun guy."

Montana is on track to become the 17th Constitutional Carry state in 2021.  

It it happens, over a third of the states in the Union will have Constitutional Carry, or permitless carry, if you prefer.

Other states which have a favorable climate for Constitutional Carry in 2021 are: Alabama, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, and Tennessee. 

The Covid 19 lockdowns appear to have slowed legislative activity in 2020. 

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch

LA: Robbery Suspect Shoots, Kills Retail Employee, is then Shot and Killed by Unknown Person

Baton Rouge Police identified the two people shot and killed on South Sherwood Forest Boulevard Friday afternoon — one a robber and the other a retail employee. 

The shooting was reported around noon Friday at the address of a business in the 2600 block of South Sherwood Forest Boulevard near where it crosses Interstate 12.

Police said that Timothy McCoy, 28, robbed and shot Wise Communications employee, Mahmod Khalaf, 48, according to spokesperson Sgt. L'Jean McKneely Jr.

More Here

OH: Meals on Wheels Worker Shoots, Woundes Robbery Suspect

The Columbus Division of Police is investigating a shooting in a South Linden neighborhood Friday morning involving a paid Meals On Wheels worker and a suspected armed robber.

"He defended himself, somebody tried to rob him," said Manorris, who says he and several neighbors after hearing gunfire, went to assist a well-known Meals-On-Wheels driver who was robbed at gunpoint just minutes after dropping off food to someone's home on East 18th Avenue.

"We know him because we see him coming through here every day being charitable, delivering meals," said Manorris.

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OH: East Price Hill Store Employee Shoots, Kills Robbery Suspect in Cincinnati

A man is dead Friday following reports that an East Price Hill store employee shot a man attempting a robbery.

Authorities have not yet identified him and are asking for the public's help.

Police said Thursday that a person was shot while attempting to rob a convenience store around 4:45 p.m. Officers reported that a store employee fired the shots.

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AZ: Alleged Home Invader Shot, Killed near 40th St. and Thomas Rd. in Phoenix

PHOENIX (3TV/CBS 5) -- A 22-year-old man is dead after breaking into an apartment in Phoenix.

Phoenix police said officers responded to a shooting call in the area of 40th Street and Thomas Road around 1:30 p.m. on Wednesday.

When officers arrived on the scene, they learned 22-year-old Luis Romero allegedly forced entry into the apartment of a man who was known to him.

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WA: Gunfight, Victim Killed Suspect Wounded in Fife near 62nd Ave E and 39th St

As of Wednesday night, police said one of the suspects had been arrested on suspicion of murder while the other was in custody waiting to be interviewed by detectives.

“This really was the result of a robbery,” said Fisher. “Robbed, then they exchanged gunfire and in that, our victim as shot and killed the scene, and at least one of the suspects was hit as well and is being treated at a hospital.”

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Saturday, November 21, 2020

FL: Gunfight, Employee Shoots at Armed Robber

The robber was unable to get anything from the store and ran toward the front door, the employee said. The employee said he made his way through the back and he and the robber encountered each other near the roadway. 

The employee said he fired several shots at the armed man, who managed to elude the worker.

More Here

Friday, November 20, 2020

VA: Showmasters, Gun Shop and John Crump Sue Governor Northam to Allow Nations Gun Show

Image screenshot from The Nations Gun Show website, cropped and scaled by Dean Weingarten

Showmasters, who run the Nations Gun Show in Chantilly, Virginia; John Crump; and Sonny's Guns and Transfers, who frequently utilize the show, have filed a lawsuit against Governor Northam and M. Norman Oliver as the State Health Commissioner, in order to prevent their shutting down one of the largest gun shows in the nation next weekend, 20, 21 and 22 November, 2020. 

The restrictions were issued on Friday, 13 November, becoming effective on 16 November. The lawsuit was filed on Tuesday, 17 November. The Nations Gun Show is scheduled for Saturday, 21 November.

Governor Ralph Northam of Virginia is no friend of gun owners or the right to keep and bear arms.  Governor Northam has imposed numerous Constitutionally questionable restraints on people in Virginia as executive orders, bypassing the legislature.

A gun show is as peaceable an assembly of persons imaginable. People at gun shows routinely discuss the problems of overstepping of government power. Governor Northam's actions will be discussed and condemned at the Nations Gun Show in Chantilly, Virginia. The motivation of the Governor is sure to be discussed.

Many of the emergency restrictions in the executive orders on commerce, movement, and assembly are vague and subject to interpretation. Such is the case with the latest set of restrictions.

One of the points of clarity requested in the lawsuit, is how the Nations Gun Show is classified.  Months of planning, hundreds of thousands of dollars in expenditures by the organizers, exhibitors, attendees, and millions of dollars in economic activity all hang on the wording of vague classifications of emergency orders. 

The orders change by executive fiat at the whim of the Governor.  Is the Nations Gun Show considered a "Brick and Mortar" establishment? Or is it an "entertainment venue"? The exercise of Constitutional rights and tens of millions of dollars of economic activity hangs on such a relatively frivolous differentiation. From the Nations Gun Show:

The show takes months to put together and it is too late a notice for most of these businesses to recoup their losses. It will cause irreparable damage to all involved from the building, auxiliary businesses, the exhibitors, the promoter, the hotel, convenience stores, restaurants, and the strip mall. Exhibitors have significant investments in inventory, as do restaurants and convenience stores, much of which cannot be recouped. We will be releasing a GoFundMe and another type of crowdfunding for legal defense expenses.

The Nations Gun Show organizers are willing to follow all social distancing, masking, and other health requirements. They did so a few months ago.

The show was safely administered in August, 2020 with Covid-19 restrictions in place.  From the lawsuit:

19. The Nation’s Gun Show has been administered successfully and safely, even during COVID-19. The Dulles Expo Center and The Nation’s Gun Show maintain and enforce a written set of policies and procedures (See Exhibit B) that not only mirror the sanitization and distancing requirements provided by the state, but also go further than the state requires. For example, Showmasters previously has utilized a germicidal UV-C lighting system and an industrial HEPA air purification system in order to combat the spread of disease throughout the show. Showmasters also has in the past ordered tens of thousands of face masks to have on hand for event staff to hand out to attendees.

20. During prior occurrences of The Nation’s Gun Show, Showmasters and Dulles Expo Center staff effectively limited the number of attendees on the floor at any given time, and enforced sanitization, distancing, and masking requirements among participants. As a result, neither state nor county health departments have reported any spread of COVID-19 as a result of The Nation’s Gun Show.

The court will need to act quickly, if it is to prevent permanent damage to those involved in the gun show. Much time and treasure has already been spent. To deny the opportunity for this gun show to occur will create significant permanent harm. 

In addition to the economic harm, cancellation of the show will directly violate Constitutional rights enshrined in the Virginia Bill of Rights. For example, the right to freedom of speech and assembly.  From Virginia Bill of Rights:

Section 12. Freedom of speech and of the press; right peaceably to assemble, and to petition.

That the freedoms of speech and of the press are among the great bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained except by despotic governments; that any citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; that the General Assembly shall not pass any law abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, nor the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for the redress of grievances.

Despotic shutting down of the Nations Gun Show, which has previously operated under Covid-19 guidelines, shows a willingness to violate several provisions of the Virginia Bill of Rights. 

It seems likely the court will prevent such a catastrophic event by clarifying the lack of authority to unilaterally shut down such events by the Governor, even under the emergency power authority. 

The emergency power authority in Virginia is not absolute. It is limited by what power was given by the Virginia legislature. 

If the court acts quickly, much harm can be prevented before this weekend.

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch


CA: Man Shot, Killed. Self Defense Suspected

A suspected home intruder was fatally shot at a Desert Hot Springs home Wednesday night.

The shooting was reported about 10:40 p.m. Wednesday in the 13-700 block of Hacienda Heights Drive, according to Desert Hot Springs police.

Officers arrived at the scene and found a man with at least one gunshot wound and he was pronounced dead at the scene. His name hasn't been released.

Deputy Chief Steven Shaw said the incident is currently identified as a homicide, but police are investigating whether self defense played a role.

More Here

Thursday, November 19, 2020

Florida Governor DeSantis Proposes Anti-Mob Legislation: Much Needed Reform

Image from video , cropped, scaled, arrows and lettering added by Dean Weingarten

Florida Governor DeSantis' administration is proposing a legislative fix to allow innocents to defend themselves and their property against rioting groups. The legislation targets violence by groups against private property and the flow of vehicular traffic, among other things.

2020 has been torn by violent riots in many Democrat controlled cities. One of the favored tactics by rioters, to gain attention, disturb the peace of uninvolved people, and demonstrate their power, is to take over public spaces, and destroy public and private property. Part of this tactic has been to block the public roads, detain and threaten vehicular traffic, to provoke motorists into action out of panic, then claiming the rioters are acting in self defense when they beat, shoot, or kill the motorists.


The proposal would also increase criminal penalties for people involved in “disorderly assemblies,” make it a third-degree felony to block traffic during protests and provide immunity to drivers who “unintentionally" hit protesters blocking traffic.

“One of the pros is that it creates immunity and protection for people who have to escape from a violent encounter if their car is surrounded, for example,” constitutional attorney Eric Friday told News4Jax, saying there are positives and negatives in the draft legislation.

The Bill of Rights includes, in the First Amendment the right of the people to peaceable assembly. From the Constitution:

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

 CNN's Chris Cuomo does not seen to have read the First Amendment. He asked where it said protesters are supposed to be polite and peaceful: 

"And please, show me where it says protesters are supposed to be polite and peaceful."

There is no right to destroy property and violate the rights of other people, not in a Constitutional republic designed to protect individuals and their rights. The ever changing dogma of the Left does not believe in individual rights or private property. They believe in government power.

Sometimes the riots have been aided by local governments who prevent police action. It is generally illegal to block public roads, but, in most jurisdictions, pedestrians have the right of way. 

If demonstrators have obtained a permit for a demonstration which includes public right of ways, such as streets, roads or highways, it is legal for them to block the roads. In Texas, it is legal for them to do so without a permit, until the police have ordered them to leave the roadway. 

This leaves motorists who happen upon people blocking roads in a legal quandary. Do they allow mobs to block them, essentially detaining them against their will, and making them vulnerable to harassment, destruction of their vehicle, beating or death; or do they use the power of their vehicle or private arms to escape the illegal confinement? 

Private conveyances have become such an integral part of daily life, the laws have not addressed the potential of masses of people to detain and attack strangers while loudly proclaiming their innocence, for obscure political reasons, primarily meant to destroy the existing political order.

The proposed Florida legislation by Governor DeSantis would be in Chapter 870 of the Florida statutes. Here are the highlights:

Violent or disorderly assemblies are defined as those those who act with at least six others, knowing the conduct of the assembly:

  • creates an immediate danger of damage to property or injury to persons
  • substantially obstructs law enforcement or other government functions or services
  • by force, threat of force, or physical action deprives any person of a legal right or disturbs any person in the enjoyment of a legal right
  • It is a defense to prosecution of the assembly was first peaceful, that when one of those assembled manifested an intent to engage in prohibited conduct, a person retires from the assembly

As for vehicles: 

  • A person may not obstruct or interfer with the regular flow of vehicular traffic on a public road, street or highway during a protest or demonstration (without a permit)
  • A motor vehicle operator who unintentionally causes injury or death to a person who obstructs or interferes with the regular flow of traffic, in such circumstance, is not liable for such injury or death.

There is more, such as:

  • making it illegal for people to throw things at others during such assemblies or protests
  • removing benefits from people who are convicted of participating in such violent assemblies or protests
  • firing government employees who participate in them. 

If public highways and roads are to be legally used for protests, they need to follow existing rules. Those generally require notice be given in advance, bonds posted, and roads blocked prior to the protests, to protect both protestors and motorists. 

The proposed legislation seems a reasonable means to allow legal defenses against organized groups of agitators. 

There is no right to destroy property and endanger others to enforce a mob's will against the majority. 

The ability to travel in reasonable safety is a hallmark of civilization. The blocking of public right of ways without legal consequences shows mob rule and the breakdown of the civil order.

 ©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch

WI: Gun Store Owner Uses Rifle to Defend Business, Suspects Captured

Upon investigation, it was learned that Issac D. Tomek and Brock A. Rhode forcefully broke into the business by smashing out windows. The business owner was in his back office and heard the commotion. He armed himself and responded to the entry of the business where he was confronted by the suspects. He fired several rounds from his rifle and the suspects fled.

More Here

Wednesday, November 18, 2020

Lauren Boebert, Star Second Amendment Supporter, Wins Colorado House Race


Image screenshot from, cropped and scaled by Dean Weingarten

Lauren Boebert is a star Second Amendment defender. She has an excellent media presence. She owns an open carry restaurant in Rifle Colorado. She understands politics.

Lauren Boebert won the race for the Colorado Third Congressional District with strong vote totals. 

Lauren turned heads when she primaried sitting congressman Scott Tipton. Her opponent in the Republican primary was endorsed by President Trump. Boebert claimed Tipton voted for illegal alien amnesty. From a Boerbert press release on 5 January, 2020:

The Heritage Foundation called the Farm Workforce Modernization Act,“foremost an illegal immigration bill that would provide amnesty for millions of illegal agricultural workers—and their spouses and children.”

Democrats have occupied the seat for 12 of the last 36 years, form 1986-1992 and from 2004 - 2010. Dick Wadhams gave this analysis of Lauren's opponent in the race for the Colorado third district U.S. House seat. From

Boebert will now face former state Rep. Diane Mitsch Bush, a sociologist from Steamboat Springs, who lost to Tipton two years ago. Mitsch Bush will attempt to campaign as a moderate even though her legislative record is on the left. She not only supports gun control; she supports the main tenets of the Green New Deal and Medicare for All promoted by Democratic Socialists such as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez

Only two Democrats have won the seat over the past 35 years. State Rep. Ben Nighthorse Campbell of Ignacio unseated Republican Congressman Mike Strang of Carbondale in 1986.  Congressman Campbell was elected to the Senate in 1992 as a Democrat but switched parties to Republican in 1995.

Lauren Boebert gained prominence as the owner of a restaurant which supports the open carry of firearms, in Rifle, Colorado. 

 Link to video

Lauren is now the Representative elect for Colorado Congressional District 3. Here is her take on what happened. From

WHAT'S NEXT: I am heading to Washington for new member orientation meetings over the next several days and I will be interviewing and hiring staff for our local and national offices. Announcements will be made as new hires are brought on board. With the new team in place, I'll focus on delivering on the promises I made in my Contract with Colorado.

PERSONAL TAKE ON THE WIN: Our Founders believed in the idea that the U.S. House of Representatives should be the voice of the people made up of ordinary citizens and not a bunch of lawyers and career politicians. I couldn't be more honored to have the opportunity as a mom and a small business owner from rural Colorado to have a say in how our country is governed. I'd like to think I'm the type of Representative who our Founders envisioned should have a say in a government of, by and for the people.

PATH TO VICTORY: I believed from the very beginning this race was a choice between freedom and prosperity or more government control of our lives. I campaigned every day to make sure my conservative message was heard loud and clear. I stayed true to myself and my conservative beliefs and voters were attracted to that. My campaign was successful because voters could see through all of the political B.S. being thrown my way and recognized that I would stand up for them in Washington, D.C.

You can read soon to be Representative Lauren's Contract with Colorado. Here is about a third of it. From Lauren Boebert Contract with Colorado

America First. I work for you. Not special interests. Not Washington, DC. Just you!

 I’ll always vote for a strong national defense, better care for our Veterans,stronger trade agreementsand to keep the promises we’ve made to our seniors. No Green New Deal, no more DC power grabs, always what’s right for Colorado. 

Constitution and Bill of Rights.My job is to secureyour rights and defend the Constitution as it is written.

I won’t let them take away our guns. I’ll always stand up for freedom of speech. I’m against judges who legislate from the bench. I’m against the national popular vote; Colorado’s voice matters and we can’t give that away to California.

 Limited Government.

 An entrenched federal bureaucracy with over2 million federal employees who earn more and receive better benefits than Main Street is far from what our founders envisioned.Term limits for all politicians, not just the good ones. Cap federal civilian pay and benefits to private sector levels. Give more authority to the President to take on the Deep State by firing those in the executive branch not implementing his policies. 

 Free Markets.Free and fair markets work when we let them.

Fewer over-reaching regulations and more competition will deliver better outcomes. Healthcare should be personal and portable with transparent and competitive pricing.Veterans should have a private-sector option, too!

Representatives like Lauren are the people conservatives need to hold the line in Congress. If, as seems more and more likely, President Trump completes a second term, he will need allies like Lauren, passionate, media savvy, energetic, and principled, to get the job done.

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

Gun Watch



NV: Gunfight, Domestic Defense? Co-Worker Fires through Door, is Shot, Killed

Spencer said a woman who lives in the complex got a ride from a friend and asked to be walked home, afraid of a coworker who had been coming around the complex.

The two walked to the front door and noticed a man, described as 19 years old, following quickly after them.

They got into the house, and the man ran up and fired at least one round through the door into the home, according to Spencer.

The friend of the woman fired back through the door, hitting and killing the man.


More Here

Tuesday, November 17, 2020

AR: Man Shoots Combative Intruder who was Hiding in Closet

"He opened the door to the closet and he actually saw this person looking at him in the closet," Van Buren Police Sgt. Jonathan Wear said. "He confronted the man that was in his home. That man became combative and at that point he ended up having to fire shots at him."

More Here

Study on Bear Spray Confirms Performance Limitations

 Image of grizzly bear  by Troy Nemitz, used with permission.

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Bear Spray Performance" was published on 1 October 2020 in the Journal of Wildlife Management. The lead investigator was Tom Smith, of Brigham Young University.

Tom Smith is well known for his publications on bear spray and firearms effectiveness when dealing with bears.

Tom Smith graciously supplied me with a copy of the full paper, which shows all the results of the study. The study provides useful information, which can help in choosing between bear spray and other systems, such as firearms, as well as in understanding some of the limitations of bear spray under different conditions.

The first sentence in the paper advances a dubious premise: 

"We can contribute to bear conservation by reducing bear mortalities due to human-bear conflicts. " 

It is an interesting premise. It is not obvious, self evident, or indisputable. 

Bear populations must be managed to be conserved. The most effective management tool to keep bears from overpopulating is to harvest the surplus population.  

Brown bear, polar bear and black bear populations are increasing in most places where they exist in North America and the Arctic. They are not endangered. As the populations increase, there are conflicts with humans. 

At any given time, the numbers of bears which need to be harvested will vary. Bears involved in bear-human conflict are a very small, but increasing number. The number required to be harvested to keep a stable population is, in nearly all situations, much higher than the number of bears involved in bear-human conflicts.

Reducing bear mortalities in human-bear conflicts means more bears will need to be harvested in regulated hunting seasons. 

It is preferable that problem bears be selectively harvested. This is done automatically when human-bear conflict is resolved by harvesting the bear. A bear killed in a human-bear conflict, is one less bear which needs to be harvested in a regulated bear hunting season. It is one less bear with a propensity to come into conflict with humans.

Reducing bear mortalities due to human-bear conflicts only shifts which bears are harvested, not the number which need to be harvested to keep bear populations stable. 

There are numerous safeguards in place to guard against the indiscriminate harvesting of bears, which might be disguised as a legitimate response to a human-bear conflict. 

Reducing bear mortalities in human-bear conflicts does not appear to be a valid reason to use bear spray compared to firearms, to improve bear conservation.

There are valid reasons for people to use bear spray instead of firearms to protect themselves and their property during human-bear conflicts. Here are two:

  • places where firearms are not allowed due to legal prohibitions
  • people who, for various reasons, are unable or unwilling to use firearms effectively or responsibly

The reasons for studying the effectiveness of bear spray under varying conditions are summarized in the abstract of the paper. From

Several studies have documented the effectiveness of bear spray in protecting users from aggressive bears. Bear spray failures, however, have also been reported along with speculation regarding the influences of temperature, wind, repeated canister use, and canister age on spray efficacy. We designed lab and field experiments to document the influence that temperature, wind, repeated discharges from the same canister, and canister age have on bear spray performance.

The recommendations from the paper are given at the end of the abstract: 

We recommend not test‐firing cans, keeping cans warm when in the cold, and retiring them when ≥4 years of age. Our results provide no compelling reason to not carry bear spray in all areas where bears occur, even if it is windy or cold.

All experiments are limited by time and cost constraints. They may provide useful information, but it is important to understand the limitations of the experimental design. 

The experimental design of the study measured and simulated the physical dispensing of the spray. It did not measure the effect of the spray on bears in various conditions.

The dispensing of the spray under various wind conditions was simulated in a computer program, using data obtained from high speed video of the spray plume in calm conditions. It was not measured in various natural wind environments.

The effect of various temperatures on bear spray performance was obtained by chilling the bear spray canisters, not in exposing the spray to environmental conditions, and dispensing the spray in the environment. Bear spray may dispense somewhat differently in air that is the same temperature as the bear spray compared to cold bear spray dispensed in warmer air. 

There was no consideration of synergistic effects. The natural environment is not the same as laboratory conditions, nor can it easily be simulated in computer programs. Natural effects often combine and reinforce each other in unexpected ways. I observed this during 30 years of testing in natural conditions during my career in Army Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation. 

There was no consideration of precipitation or foliage or other obstacles, or of potential physiological variations in bears at various temperatures, for example. 

We can speculate on what effect a combination of cold temperature, wind, rain and foliage might have on a plume of bear spray, but it is difficult to measure.

Given the constraints of the experimental design (all experimental designs have constraints), the results obtained are interesting and sobering.

The most pronounced effects were from wind. All winds over a very low threshold ( 1 m/sec ~ 2 mph, a barely perceptible breeze) had a profound effect on the range of the bear spray. Winds moving in the direction of the spray extended its range to a full 10 meters (33 ft) and beyond. All head winds over 1 m/s  limited the range to 1.5-2.3  meters (5-7 ft) (as seen on Figure 9). All side winds over 1 m/s limited the range to 2.5-3.5 meters (8-11 ft) (Figure 9). The figure is not reproduced here due to copyright restraints.

Cold temperatures had the next most significant effect on spray performance.  When the temperature was below 18 degrees C, (64 degrees F), the spray plume, in calm conditions, extended a bit over 4 meters (13 ft). At temperatures below -17 degrees C ( 1 degree F) the plume was considerably narrowed. Below -23 degrees C (- 9 decrees F), the plume was very narrow. The range of the plume was about the same, a bit over 4 meters in calm air.

From the deposition of the spray on paper on the ground, in images published in the paper, it appears the plume was about 14 to 12 inches wide at the lower two temperatures.

Age of bear spray canisters did not have an extreme effect. There was a slow, gradual, loss of propellant over years.  It appeared most bear spray would be effective for at least a decade.

The pressure at the nozzle dropped very rapidly as the bear spray was dispensed. An initial 1 second spray reduced the pressure by about 1/2, and uses about 1/2 of the spray in the can. Subsequent sprays release much less product. 

The results of the tests explain the lukewarm recommendation:

Our results provide no compelling reason to not carry bear spray in all areas where bears occur, even if it is windy or cold.

From the results of the study, readers might draw this conclusion: 

The results show compelling reasons to favor firearms over bear spray in conditions where there may be wind or cold. The reasons are clear.

- Firearms work reliably and well in cold and wind. Both handguns and long guns consistently have effective ranges at least three times as far as bear spray in calm conditions, 10 times as far during most wind conditions, and seven times as far during  cold temperatures.  Firearms are very effective at ranges less than 13 feet. 

- In cold and/or windy conditions, bear spray may need to be aimed well, much like a firearm, but without sights or ergonomic grips.

- It is easy to reload a firearm, many of which have more deterrent capacity than bear spray. 

- Firearm capacities of five to fifteen rounds are common. One round can, and often has, stopped a bear. When the bear is stopped with a firearm, it is unlikely to return, which has happened several times when bears have been sprayed with bear spray. 

-Firearms may be kept easily available in cold conditions, while bear spray is recommended to be kept warm, making it harder to access quickly. 

Firearms are, at present, considerably more ergonomic than bear spray, and much easier to practice with.  This is offset by the size of bear spray plumes. The size of the bear spray plume is much reduced at lower temperatures. 

Firearms have been shown to be extremely effective in preventing and stopping bear attacks.

Tom Smith, the lead investigator of the study, gave an interview on Alaska Public Media on October 12, 2020. In the interview, he explained it was difficult to recruit graduate students to participate in the study because it was easy to be inadvertently sprayed. He recounted how he and a graduate student were incapacitated by bear spray:

"We had a breeze that blew just the lightest cloud back at us and we blindly clawed our way into a building and we found ourselves in a women's restroom washing our faces."

If the defender is spraying into any head wind, the chances of being debilitated by the spray is significant.  If the defender has to wait until the bear is within 5-7 feet, there is very little room for error. Spray too soon, and the bear spray is blown back into your face, away from the bear. Wait too long, and you are in a deadly fight before the bear is sprayed. Once in hand to hand combat, you may or may not be able to spray the bear.

Tom Smith is optimistic about the dynamics of surprise encounters with brown bears in heavy cover:

"If push comes to shove, and, you know, you've got a can of bear spray, you're going to get the bear in the face. You may not like it being three feet away, but you're going to get it."
From my research on bear attacks, this seems overly optimistic. 

©2020 by Dean Weingarten: Permission to share is granted when this notice and link are included.

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